谓语动词是什么,谓语动词包含什么?

 生活杂谈     |      2020-01-16 17:14
我们知道了英语的5种基本句型,而且知道了什么样的词语可以作主语。今天我们先来看下“谓语”(predicate)的概念。从广义上来说,“谓语”的作用就是说明主语的情况,即主语做了什么(do what),是什么(what is it)或者怎么样(how is it)。Opps,这句话其实也是英语句法唯一的真理。
那么,怎么辨认谓语的成分,特别简单,在我们学过的5种基本句型种,除了主语以外,你可以把其他的基本成分统称为谓语。所以有5种基本句型,就有5种谓语形式。
1. 主语 + 不及物动词
The bus came.
2。 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语
I love you.
3。 主语 + 双宾动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语
He gives me a hug.
4. 主语 + 系动词 + 主语补语
I am a teacher.
5。 主语 + 宾补动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补语 
I made my girlfriend angry.
See?标红色的就是5大类谓语形式。Anyway,这不是我们的重点,今天的重点不是学谓语,而是谓语动词。你不妨看看主语后面接的那些成分是什么,例如不及物动词,及物动词,双宾动词,系动词,宾补动词......好多抽象的属于,不管怎么样,你把眼睛放亮,看最后2个字:动词!!!
所以从上面的5种基本句型可以得出一条真理:
一句英文句子,除了必须要有主语以外,还必须要有动词。
这个动词就是我们今天要学的谓语动词,我们来看看有哪些常见的谓语动词。注意,我们今天只学动词,但动词本身就已经有很多类别了。
第一类:实义动词(及物动词和不及物动词)
read,write,play,run
实义动词就是具有实际动作意义的词语,比如跑。那有什么动词没有实际动作,或者是虚的呢?比如系动词,is是个什么动作?比如情态动词can是个什么动作?所以先理清区别,我们讨论的是实义动词,有实际动作的。
*不及物动词
My mother smiled.
Jim swims well.
The sun rises every day。
Bill Gates dropped out at 18.
He goes away.
I get up at 10 in the morning.
*及物动词
Mary speaks English。
I like her。
Steve Jobs left school at 22.
My mother always makes a cake for me on my birthday.
Students often have dinner at 5.
He cut himself yesterday.
The princess and prince live a happy life forever.
People here abide by the rules.
I want to know your name.
She loves reading books.
He said that he would call me soon.
His father gave him a large sum of money。
要注意这些谓语动词的否定形式,需要使用助动词do/does/did + not来实现。疑问句形式也需要do/does/did形式来实现。且这些助动词后面,都是接动词原形。
Don't give up your dream.
Mary doesn't speak English。
Jim didn't give me any money.
Do you have a knife?
Did you see that man?
Does Tom love reading?
当然,除了这些常见的助动词以外,完成时的have/has/had也被称为是助动词,后面需要接的是动词的过去分词形式(done形式)。
第二类:系动词(又称be动词)
am,is,are,was,were
系动词是谓语动词里特别具有标志性的词语,而且数量不多,特别好辨认。不过系动词后面接的东西可以有很多形式,可以接名词,形容词,动词ing形式,to do形式,介词形式等等。
Mr。 Wang is a rich man。
He was mad.
I am happy.
He is doing homework now.
She is to get married.
That old woman is at the hospital.
Mary is tired of life。
I am happy to see you
I wasn't mad.
Tom isn't in a good mood.
需要特别一提的是,有一类动词,可以起到系动词的作用,数量不多,常见的如:feel,seem,appear,grow,become,get,go,run,remain,stay,keep,look,smell,sound,taste,fall等等。换言之,这些词语后面可以直接接形容词,名词或to do等,表示主语的状态。
It seems to be true.
He appears to have a lot of trouble。
The tree grows taller and taller。
He became a bad man.
The cat remained quiet.
Please stay calm.
The cake looks delicious.
You look stunning。
It tastes good。
第三类:情态动词
Can,should,must,may
情态动词种类也不多,顾名思义,表达的是情态,能否,应该不应该,必须不必须,可以不可以等。其实情态动词是结合动词使用的,只是第一类实义动词的补充。
We can do it。
We should abide by the rules.
You mustn't give up.
The team may lose the game.
All students ought to get up early.
We can't cheat people.
情态动词需要牢记一条:情态动词+动词原形。
下面我们拿一段外媒的新闻来看,每句话的主语和谓语动词都是什么。

谓语动词都包含什么?
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